Asceticism: True and False

by Digitalnun on January 8, 2013

It might surprise you to know that there is a lot of false asceticism about. All that flesh-hating, afraid-of-the-body nonsense peddled by those who are neither ascetic themselves nor wish anyone else to be is seriously misleading. It is behind much of our simplistic ‘fat-is-bad, thin-is-good’, thinking. It makes people miserable when they ought to be happy and, because it is based on a false premise, prevents people from realising that they never can be happy while they subscribe to a lie.

True asceticism has nothing whatever to do with punishment, but everything to do with training and discipline. The Greek origins of the word are enough to show that (askesis means practice, athletic training). It is not to be identified with austerity, although a certain restraint is necessary since what we aim at is mastery over our appetites and any bad habits they may have led us into. St Jerome was very clear-eyed about this, saying that fasting, for example, should not be taken to excess as it is only a means to an end. It is a help towards attaining moral perfection, but it is not perfection itself. We could go further and say that fasting taken to excess is a sin, because it is a misuse of material goods and a profanation of the body, leading to pride, hardness of heart and a host of other evils.

Asceticism is always ethical, both in origin and in scope. There is nothing mystical about it, although some modern writers seem to confuse the two. Nor is there anything sad or heavy about it. Like all exercise, it is meant to invigorate, only for Christians it is a spiritual invigoration that we seek.

The chief asceticisms of the Rule of St Benedict are obedience and the common life, in which the use of time, speech, material goods, food and drink are all regulated. They are disciplines aimed at freeing the monk or nun from anything that might hold them back on the way to God. Self-will, self-indulgence, all the many forms of selfishness we prefer not to admit to, are encouraged by soft living and having no checks on what one says or does. (You do not have to be a moral theologian to work that out — just look at the gossip columns of the Mail Online, for instance, and you can see how sad and empty are the lives of many people who judge their worth by what they own and who walk away from relationships when the going gets tough.) But the point to note about the Benedictine asceticisms is that none is carried to excess. They are part of our training in the spiritual life and, as such, the renunciations they involve should be joyful. Benedict makes that very clear when he writes about Lent and our offering things up gladly, with the joy of the Holy Spirit.

I myself think asceticism began to go wrong when people began to go wrong about religion, mistaking misery for holiness and punishment for penance. Food, instead of being blessed, shared and enjoyed, became a temptation; wine, instead of being a source gladness of heart, became sinful; and once things become temptations and are regarded as sinful, we get them all wrong, too. Maybe we wouldn’t be worrying about an obesity epidemic if we hadn’t decided that food is innately sinful and therefore curiously desirable; maybe we wouldn’t be worrying about our drinking habits if we hadn’t let them run out of control because we associate the pleasures of wine with guilt; maybe we wouldn’t have so many broken marriages if we hadn’t got so confused about love and sex. I could go on, but I might end up indulging in a grumble, if not a rant.

My suggested remedy for many of the social ills that assail us is for the Churches to rethink asceticism and, instead of presenting much of our ethical and moral behaviour as a series of negatives, try to regain something the early Church understood much better. We are runners in a race towards heaven, and we need to get into training. In other words, we need to become true ascetics. The world has more than enough of the fake and phoney kind.

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10 comments

Having now read a lot about and by St Edith Stein she seems to fulfil your criteria .
Edith’s intense love of the Cross and her writings about it may be a good source of help with the problems you have identified.
Perhaps a good read for Lent.

by Alexander on Tuesday, 8 January, 2013 at 9:05 am. #

Thank you, Alexander. Although I share your admiration for St Teresa Benedicta/Edith Stein, I suspect that for many people she would be too demanding intellectually for her ideas to be easily assimilable. She is a tough read!

by Digitalnun on Wednesday, 9 January, 2013 at 4:08 pm. #

Yes, exactly, it is all about balance either extreme is a “sin”. Much better to enjoy the grace of food when Seeking the Sacred as Dr Stephanie Dowrick exhorts. Funnily enough you posted this as i was reading her book Everyday Kindness chapters on food and emotional fitness in living a spiritual life. Thank you. i really enjoy and appreciate your insightful blogs

by Peta on Tuesday, 8 January, 2013 at 9:14 am. #

Thank you, Peta.

by Digitalnun on Wednesday, 9 January, 2013 at 4:08 pm. #

Well said, Sister. It seems to me that one of the great errors of the modern world is to confuse asceticism with joylessness.

by pattif on Tuesday, 8 January, 2013 at 11:12 am. #

Thank you, Pattif.

by Digitalnun on Wednesday, 9 January, 2013 at 4:09 pm. #

Well said, I also think that self discipline and self control – something that is not very popular – are also important disciplines in the Christian life, which should be one of Joy! After all, if you can’t be joyful about this overwhelming love that God has for us as shown in His Son what can you be joyful about?

by Christine on Tuesday, 8 January, 2013 at 12:58 pm. #

Thank you, Christine.

by Digitalnun on Wednesday, 9 January, 2013 at 4:09 pm. #

Oh, dear a searching post that catches me out again :(

But one that makes real sense. A joyless asceticism can’t be what God calls us to live, but a life of discipline and self-sacrifice, curbing the appetites isn’t easy for most of us.

I wonder what I can give up next? Perhaps the joyless bit would be the best thing?

by UKViewer on Tuesday, 8 January, 2013 at 9:30 pm. #

Catches us all out, Ernie, but I think giving up the joyless bit would be a very good idea!

by Digitalnun on Wednesday, 9 January, 2013 at 4:10 pm. #


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